આ ‘યોગા’ એટલે શું ?

(સૌ પ્રથમ જે મિત્રો માટે અંગ્રેજી કેલેન્ડરનો જ આધાર છે એવા મિત્રોને નવા વર્ષની શુભેચ્છાઓ. હમણા એક ફેઈસબુક મિત્ર – સતીશભાઈ જોશી એ ‘યોગ’ની ગરીમાની વાત છેડી અને દિવ્યભાસ્કરના રાજ ગોસ્વામીએ ૨૮ ડીસેમ્બરની રવીવારીય પુર્તિમાં (પેઈજ ૮) યોગ દિવસના અર્થશાસ્ત્રની વાત છેડી ત્યારે, જેમ ‘ધ્યાનની ભાંતિઓ’ વિષે લખવાનું થયું તેમ આ ‘યોગા’ વિષે પણ લખવાની ઇચ્છા થઈ.)

With thanks from -http://camelcityyoga.com/img/meditation.jpg

With thanks from -http://camelcityyoga.com/img/meditation.jpg

‘હું રોજ સવારે નિયમિત અડધો કલાક યોગા કરું છું.’

‘અમારી સ્કુલમાં રો જ યોગ કરાવે છે’

‘‘યોગા’ કરવાથી સ્વાસ્થ્ય સારું રહે છે’

યોગાસનો કરીએ એટલે યોગ ?

પ્રાણાયમ કરીએ એટલે યોગ ? કે પછી ….

પલાઠી મારીને આંખો બંધ કરી અને ધ્યાન (?) માં બેસીએ એટલે યોગ ?

સુરતીઓની જેમ બગીચામાં જાતજાતના યોગાસન અને હાસ્યયોગ કરી, ગ્રુપમાં સેવખમણીનો નાસ્તો કરવા ચાર રસ્તે પહોંચી જવું અને પછી મિત્રોમાં કહેતા ફરવું કે ‘મને તો રોજ સવારે યોગા કર્યા વગર ફાવે જ નહીં, સવારનો એક કલાક પાકો. (એમાં અડધો કલાક સેવખમણીના નાસ્તાનો આવી જાય)

આ ‘યોગ’ નો ફાયદો ખરો ? કદાચ મિત્રોમાં બણગા ફુંકવા માટે ફાયદો થતો હશે, પણ શરીર સ્વાસ્થ્ય અને લાઈફ સ્ટાઈલનું શું ?

ક્યારેક પુછવાનું મન પણ થાય કે ‘તમે ‘યોગા’ માં શું કરો છો ?’ જવાબોમાં મહદ અંશે યોગાસનો, પ્રાણાયમ કે ધ્યાનમાં બેસવાની વાતો હોય. આ જવાબો સાંભળીને આંધળાઓના હાથી દર્શનની વાત યાદ આવી જાય.

સાદી ભાષામાં સમજવા માટે પતંજલી યોગ દર્શન કે અષ્ટાંગ યોગને શરણે જવું પડે. એમાં તો યોગના આઠ અંગ કહ્યા છે. આ આઠ અંગ ભેગા થાય ત્યારે ‘યોગ’ બને. (યમ, નિયમ, આસન, પ્રાણાયમ, પ્રત્યાહાર, ધારણા, ધ્યાન અને સમાધી). હવે ફક્ત યોગાસન કરીને કે પ્રણાયમ કરીને એમ કહી શકાય કે હું રોજ ‘યોગ’ કરું છું ? ફક્ત હાથીની સુંઢનું વર્ણન કરીને સમગ્ર હાથીના દેખાવનો દાવો કરી શકાય ?

હા ! એમ જરુર કહી શકાય કે ‘હું રોજ પ્રાણાયમ કરું છું’ કે ‘યોગાસનો કરું છું.’

મારી નજરે – ‘યોગ એ માનવ ચેતનાને વૈશ્વિક ચેતના સાથે જોડવાની પ્રક્રિયા છે.’

અષ્ટાંગ યોગને બે રીતે સમજાવવામાં આવે છે – એક છે સમાધી સુધી પહોંચવાની સીદી – આઠ અંગો એ આઠ પગથીયા છે. વારાફરતી એક એક પગથીયું ચડી સમાધી સુધી પહોંચી શકાય.

બીજી સમજુતી થોડી વધારે તાર્કીક લાગે છે. યોગના આઠે અંગો સીધા આપણી ચેતના સાથે જોડાયેલ છે – જેમ આપણા શરીરના અંગો – હાથ, પગ વગેરે મુળ શરીર સાથે સીધા જોડાયેલા છે.

વધુ સમજીએ તો એક અંગ ‘યમ’ – જે મનુષ્ય એ અન્ય સાથેના વ્યવહારોમાં, પોતે સ્વનિયંત્રણ રાખવાનું છે એ બાબતો – અહિંસા, સત્ય, અસ્તેય, બ્રહ્મચર્ય અને અપરિગ્રહ.

વીકીપેડીયાની સમજુતી મુજબ –

  • Ahimsa: non-violence, inflicting no injury or harm to others or even to one’s own self, it goes as far as nonviolencein thought, word and deed.
  • Satya: non-illusion; truth in word and thought.
  • Asteya: non-covetousness to the extent that one should not even desire something that is his own; non-stealing.
  • Brahmacharya: abstinence, particularly in the case of sexual activity. Also, responsible behavior with respect to our goal of moving toward the truth. It suggests that we should form relationships that foster our understanding of the highest truths. “Practicing brahmacharya means that we use our sexual energy to regenerate our connection to our spiritual self. It also means that we don’t use this energy in any way that might harm others.
  • Aparigraha: non-possessiveness; non-hoarding

જ્યારે ‘નિયમ’ માં પોતાના પર નિયંત્રણ રાખવાનું છે તે – શોચ, સંતોષ, તપસ, સ્વાધ્યાય અને ઇશ્વરપ્રણિધાન –

  • Shaucha: cleanliness of body and mind.
  • Santosha: satisfaction; satisfied with what one has.
  • Tapas: austerity and associated observances for body discipline and thereby mental control.
  • Svadhyaya: study of the Vedic scriptures to know about God and the soul, which leads to introspection on a greater awakening to the soul and God within,
  • Ishvarapranidhana: surrender to (or worship of) God.

હવે લોકો જ્યારે ‘યોગ’ કરું છું તેમ કહે ત્યારે ઉપરના બે અંગમાંથી કેટલાનું પાલન કરે છે ? દસ મીનીટ ધ્યાનમાં બેસે ત્યારે પણ ‘કોઈકની ટોપી ફેરવવાનો’ વિચાર આવતો હોય તો આ માનસિક હિંસા દ્વારા ‘અહિંસા’નો ભંગ થયો કે નહિં ?

માનવ ચેતના સમગ્ર શરીરમાં વ્યાપ્ત છે, તેને અલગ કરી વૈશ્વિક ચેતના સાથે જોડવા માટે શરીર પર તેનો કાબુ હોવો જરુરી છે અને તે માટે ‘આસન’ અને ‘પ્રાણાયમ’ કરવા જોઈએ. દસ મીનીટ માટે શરીરના કોઈપણ હલનચન વગર બેસવાનો પ્રયત્ન કરજો, ‘સ્વાધ્યાય’ વગર નહીં બેસી શકાય. પ્રાણાયમ કરતી વખતે પણ શરીરના અમુક હિસ્સાઓનું હલનચલન થવું જોઈએ. પણ એવું બનતું નથી.

આથી મિત્રો ! હું એક કલાક ‘યોગ’ કરું છું એમ કહેવા કરતાં ફક્ત દસ મીનીટ જ કરો પણ સાચી રીતે કરો. રમદેવજીની યોગ-પ્રાણાયમની સીડી જોતી વખતે ફક્ત શ્વાસની કસરત પર કેન્દ્રીત ન થાઓ પણ એમની અન્ય સુચનાઓ ‘પ્રાણ શક્તિને મારા શ્વાસમાં ભરું છું’ ‘મારામાં પ્રાણશક્તિનો સંચાર થઈ રહ્યો છે’ એ વાક્યો પણ અગત્યના છે. એ વિચાર મનમાં રમતો હોવો જરુરી છે, અન્યથા ‘પ્રાણાયમ’ એ ફક્ત શ્વાસની કસરત બની રહે છે.

અષ્ટાંગ યોગમાં ત્યાર પછી ‘પ્રત્યાહાર’ આવે જેમાં ઇન્દ્રીયોમાંથી મનને ખેંચી લેવાની વાત છે. આ પાંચ અંગ – યમ, નિયમ, આસન, પ્રાણાયમ અને પ્રત્યાહાર, એ સામાન્ય માનવી માટે શક્ય છે એમ કહી શકાય. કારણ કે આગળના બે અંગ સિધ્ધ કરવા, જે મનુષ્યને વૈશ્વિક ચેતના સાથે જોડાઈ જવુ છે એવા યોગીઓ માટે શક્ય છે.

તો…. હવે હું રોજ ‘યોગા’ કરું છું એ બોલતી વખતે સુધારો કરજો…..

 

5 comments on “આ ‘યોગા’ એટલે શું ?

  1. યોગ એ પશ્ચિમના દેશોમાં યોગા બની ગયો છે અને એની હાટડીઓ ઠેર ઠેર ખુલી ગઈ છે. યોગ કમાવાનું
    સાધન બની ગયો છે.
    તમારી વાત સાચી છે. હું યોગા કરુણ છું એમ કહેનારા ખરી રીતે એના એક બે પ્રકાર ઉપર જ ધ્યાન કેન્દ્રિત
    કરતા હોય છે. તમે હાથીના અંગોનું ઉદાહરણ આપ્યું છે એ બરાબર યોગ્ય છે .

    ડો. જગદીશભાઈ, યોગ વિષે આ અભ્યાસ પૂર્ણ લેખ દ્વારા સાચી સમજણ આપવા માટે આપને અભિનંદન.

    આપને નવા વર્ષ ૨૦૧૫ માટે અનેક શુભેચ્છાઓ.

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  2. Hiranya says:

    યોગ – ધ્યાન નું પ્રયોજન હોય નહી. પ્રયોજન હોય એ ધ્યાન નથી. ધ્યાન કરવું ન જોઇએ, સહજ થઇ રહે. ધ્યાન એ ઘટના છે. ધ્યાન એટલે મન વિનાનું મન.

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    • jagdish48 says:

      હિરણ્યભાઈ,
      કદાચ હું ખોટો હોઈશ, પણ સામાન્ય અર્થમાં વપરાતો શબ્દ ‘ધ્યાન’ એ ‘એકાગ્રતા’ નો પર્યાય છે. ‘બેધ્યાન થવું’ એ ક્રિયામાંથી ‘મગજ’ (brain) હટી જવાની ઘટના છે. કમને પણ વ્યક્તિ અણગમતા કાર્યો ધ્યાન (એકાગ્રતા) થી કરતા હોય છે.
      ‘મન’ (mind) ‘સ્વ’ સાથે જોડાયેલું છે.
      ‘સ્વ’ને સમજવા માટે ‘ધ્યાન’ કરવું પડે, આપોઆપ ન થાય. આથી ઘટના નથી પણ ક્રિયા છે.
      અગાઊ મેં ‘ધ્યાન પ્રક્રિયાની ભ્રાંતિઓ’ પર બે પોસ્ટ મુકેલી છે, સમય મળ્યે જોઈ જશો.
      આભાર.
      https://bestbonding.wordpress.com/2013/08/12/dhyan_bhranti_1/

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      • Sharad Shah says:

        The ability to concentrate is not something to feel blessed about. It is a frozen state of mind, a very narrow state of mind. Useful, of course, useful — for others. Useful in scientific inquiry, useful in business, useful in the market, useful in politics — but absolutely useless for yourself. If you become too attuned with concentration you will become very, very tense. Concentration is a tense state of mind; you will never be relaxed. Concentration is like a torch, focused, and consciousness is like a lamp, unfocused.

        My whole effort here is to teach you consciousness, not concentration. And this is the point to be remembered: if you become conscious, any moment you want to concentrate on a particular problem, you can. It is not a problem. But if you become too focused with concentration the vice versa is not true: you cannot relax. A relaxed mind can always concentrate. easily, there is no trouble about it. But a focused mind becomes obsessed. narrow. It is not easy for it to relax and leave the tension. It remains tense.

        Meditation will allow you to concentrate whenever the need arises
        If you meditate. first concentration will disappear and you will be feeling a little at a loss. But if you go on, by and by you will attain to an unfocused state of light — that’s what meditation is. Once meditation is attained. concentration is child’s play — whenever you need to, you can concentrate. There will be no problem about it and it will be easy and without any tension.

        Right now, you are being used by society. Society wants efficient people. It is not worried about your soul, it is worried about your productivity. I am not worried about your productivity: man has already too much, more than he can enjoy — there is no need to go on producing more. Now there is more need to play around more and there is more need to be more conscious. Science has developed enough. Now, whatsoever science is doing is almost futile. Now, going to the moon is simply useless. But tremendous energy is wasted. Why? Because scientists are now obsessed — they have to do something. They have learned a trick of concentration and they have to do something. They have to produce, they have to go on producing something — they cannot relax. They will go to the moon, they will go to Mars, and they will persuade people that whatsoever they are doing is tremendously important. It is absolutely useless. But this happens.

        Once you become trained in a certain thing, you go on in that line, blind, unless a cul de sac comes and you cannot go on anymore. But life is infinite. There comes no cul de sac. You can go on and on and on.
        And now scientific activity has almost become ridiculous.

        Religious activity is totally different. It is not worried about being more efficient; the whole point is how to be more joyful, how to be more celebrating. So if you be with me, by and by, concentration will relax. And in the beginning you will feel afraid because you will see your skill disappearing, your efficiency disappearing. You will feel you are losing something that you have gained with so much effort. In the beginning it will happen. The ice is melting and becoming water. The ice was solid, something concentrated; now it is water — loose, relaxed, flowing in all directions. But anytime you need ice, the water can be turned into ice again. There is no problem — just a little more cooling is needed.

        This is my own experience. Whatsoever I say, I say from my own experience — the same has happened to me. First, concentration disappeared; but now I can concentrate on anything. There is no problem. But I don’t remain in concentration; I can concentrate and relax — whenever the need arises. Just as whenever the need arises, you walk; you don’t sit on the chair and go on moving your Legs. There are a few people who go on moving because they cannot sit relaxed — you will call this man restless!
        Legs in perfect order are needed so that whenever you need to, you can walk, you can run. But when there Is no need, you can relax, and the legs will no longer be functioning.

        But your concentration has become almost as focused as if you are continuously preparing for an Olympic Runners in an Olympic cannot relax. They have to run a particular amount every morning and evening; they are continuously on the go. If they relax for a few days they will lose their skill. But I call all Olympics political, ambitious, foolish. There is no need.

        Competition is foolish. There is no need. If you enjoy running — perfectly good. Run. and enjoy. But why compete? What is the point of competition? Competition brings illness, unhealthiness; competition brings jealousy, and a thousand and one diseases.

        Meditation will allow you to concentrate whenever the need arises, but if there is no need you will remain relaxed, flowing in all directions like water.
        Feel blissful, blessed. What is the point of uttering logical sentences! Utter nonsense; make sounds, gibberish, like birds… Like trees! (At this moment a nearby tree decided, with the help of a passing breeze, to illustrate Osho’s words by shaking its branches and causing hundreds of leaves to fall with loud rustling sounds to the ground.) Look! This way! Is this logical? The tree is enjoying. Delighting. Simply shedding away the past.

        Delight. Sing. Utter sounds. Forget all logic! And by and by you will become more alive. Less logical of course that is the price one has to pay — but you become dead if you become more logical and you become more alive if you become less logical.
        Life is the goal, not logic. What are you going to do with logic? If you are hungry, logic is not going to feed you; if you need love, logic is not going to hug you; if you are thirsty, logic will tell you that water is H20! It is not going to give you water, real water. No. It simply functions in formulas, maxims.

        Look at life, and by and by you will understand that life has its own very logical logic. Be attuned to it and that will become the door for your ecstasy, samadhi, nirvana.

        OSHO – Ancient Music in the Pines, Chapter 8

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  3. Sharad Shah says:

    WHAT ABOUT YOGA?

    Yoga means union, the science of union. Meditation is the most supreme phenomenon as far as union with reality is concerned. Meditation is the god of yoga. But yoga has fallen into wrong hands, and not only recently — for centuries it has been in the wrong hands.

    The original fault must be with the founder, Patanjali himself. Patanjali has divided yoga into eight parts. His division is clear-cut, very scientific, but he was not really aware of human stupidity. He started with the body ― and that’s the right way to start. The first part of yoga must be physiological because man lives on the circumference, in the body, so the work has to start there, only then can it reach the mind. And when one has gone beyond the body and beyond the mind, then the third, meditation, happens.

    So according to Patanjali the first part belongs to the body. But he was not clearly aware that millions of people would remain entangled with the first part. Hence yoga has become synonymous with yoga postures: people standing on their heads and doing all sorts of contortions. That has become synonymous with yoga.

    It is not a true yoga, it is just the preface, the introductory part; and the person who thinks the introduction is the whole book is idiotic. But Patanjali did not warn people. If he had warned people it would have been better. People like Patanjali believe in others’ intelligence ― which is not there! They trust. Their trust is immense, their trust is as immense as people’s stupidity is! They respect people’s intelligence. So he did not warn people, but the warning was absolutely necessary: ‘Don’t get entangled in the physiological part.’

    A few people, only very few ― if a hundred people become interested in yoga then only one person will get out of the physiological entanglement. And that one person will become entangled in the psychological. If a hundred persons are entangled in the psychological then only one person gets out of it…and only when you get out of the mind does the real yoga begin.

    The physiological part of yoga will give you great physiological powers; it can make you live a really long, healthy life. But what are you going to do with a long life? If you are idiotic, instead of being idiotic for seventy years you will be idiotic for two hundred years. It is not going to help anybody; it will be a calamity.

    There was a man called Nadir Shah ― one of the most notorious, murderous men in the whole history of humanity. He invaded India at least one hundred and eight times. He killed more people in India than anybody else. And he had his own ways of torturing: he would put the whole town on fire and surround the town with his army so nobody could escape ― and he would enjoy it!

    This man asked an astrologer, because he had heard of his fame, ‘What do you say? What is your advice? ― should a man live long, very long, or should one live only the average, seventy years?’

    The astrologer must have been a really wise man. He said, ‘It all depends. If a man like you lives long, it is bad, it is unfortunate. In the first place a man like you should not be born; and in the second place, if he is born, then he should die immediately. And in the third place, if he manages to live somehow, then the sooner he dies, the better!’

    Nadir Shah was very angry. This was the first man who had not bothered about his murderous attitude, this was the first man who had said the truth as it was. Nadir Shah said ‘I will kill you!’ The astrologer said ‘That doesn’t matter – you can kill me, but I have to tell the truth. The truth is that if men like you do live, they should sleep twenty-four hours a day and drink as much as they can!’

    Nadir Shah was so shocked but the man was so truthful that even Nadir Shah had to leave him alone. Even he could not gather courage to kill such a man. He felt shaken and he remembered him again and again: ‘What a man! Almost a dragon! He made me tremble ― the way he looked at me and the way he said things. I had never expected anybody would have such courage.’ But he respected the astrologer.

    Yoga can make a person live long, but what will you do? That physiological part should not be paid so much attention. Yes, a little bit is good to keep physically fit, but just a little bit; otherwise it is a vast jungle. One can be lost in its subtleties, in its complexities.

    The second part is even vaster than the physiological. If you get into it you can have many psychic powers, you can read people’s thoughts. But what is the point? Your own rubbish is so much, what is the point of reading somebody else’s rubbish? He is tortured by his rubbish and you are reading his thoughts ― and you think you are doing something great!

    The real thing is to get rid of thoughts, not to read them. One even has to get rid of one’s own thoughts; what is the point of reading other people’s thoughts? And what is there? You can stand by the side of the road and you can see a man is walking along and thinking of his dog ― so what?

    If you listen to people’s thoughts, what will you find? Somebody is thinking of his cow, somebody is thinking of his buffalo, somebody is thinking of his wife, somebody is thinking of somebody else’s wife! And you are thinking what they are thinking! Maybe the other person is also a yogi and is reading somebody else’s thoughts. Then things become very complicated!

    The physiological part is ordinary, the psychological part is ordinary. Both can give power, but power is not the goal of meditation. Power is politics, all kinds of power is politics. And power corrupts ― all kinds of power ― it corrupts unconditionally and absolutely. It always corrupts.

    Hence I say the only essential thing, the real core of all religion, of all yoga, of all methods of search, is meditation. One should put aside everything non-essential. You can use things as stepping stones, but not more than that ― just like jumping boards. You need not bother too much about them. Your whole concern should be one-pointed; you should move like an arrow towards meditation. Only then in this small life, with so little time, power and energy available and with so many problems surrounding you, can you hope that the arrow will reach the target.

    The moment you know something of meditation ― not about it, but the very taste of it ― a great release comes. a great relief comes. Suddenly all tensions disappear: anxieties, anguishes, are found no more. Even if you want them just for a change, you cannot find them. I have tried and failed! Sometimes I try very hard to find some anxiety but I cannot, it simply does not work. I have tried all possible ways, from this side and that side, but I come to the same end: it does not work.

    Once you have tasted meditation it is impossible for you to be in any misery. Bliss becomes inevitable, a natural showering, and it goes on showering like flowers showering from the sky.

    Osho, Nirvana: Now or Never

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